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Articles May-June 2021

Pursuing the Pro Audio Trail

In conversation with Caroline Moss and Sue Gould

PT got in touch with the Pro AVL Asia magazine core team of Editor - Caroline Moss and Sales Director - Sue Gould, who between them boast of over three decades of experience in the pro audio industry..... read more

NJSM Marks a Milestone in the Business of Sound

From Rental Company to manufacturer and innovator, Nixon Johnny has guided and grown NJSM from a two-person company to a fifty-person company, continuing to expand into virtual events with NJSM Virtual Studio..... read more

Tech Savvy Environment for T-Systems

Eyte Technologies installs high-tech AV Solution at T-System’s Experience Center facilitating brand value and delivering superior customer experience..... read more

Conversations with SudeepAudio

Sudeep Audio, one of India’s first pro audio web store selling studio software and equipment online commenced its YouTube Channel, ConverSAtions, in 2011 to share the journey of Indian Sound Engineers..... read more

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Line Arrays

Tour Stars

A whole lot of line arrays have appeared over the past decade, with almost all speaker manufacturers having their own version. PALM technology surveys the field and presents six line arrays gracing the touring circuits. This focus is purely for info purpose and intended as a guide.

Nexo GEO M6

In 2014 Yamaha Commercial Audio Systems released the Nexo GEO M6 compact loudspeaker series. Drawing on more than 30 years’ experience at the forefront of acoustic design, GEO M6 utilises a number of patented technologies to achieve exceptional levels of sonic performance. And For smaller shows, NEXO GEO M6 delivers uncompromised full-range sound from a compact system, with an elegant internal rigging system. Comprising two identically-sized cabinets – the GEO M620 main and GEO M6B bass extension – and complemented by a comprehensive range of mounting accessories, GEO M6 offers installation contractors and sound rental companies a dependable, TÜV-certified system.

Main Features include:

• The GEO M620 is a full-range unit for stand-alone, curved array or line array application.
• The GEO M6B is a low and mid-frequency partner module to the GEO M620, for applications which demand more powerful reinforcement, such as live music.
• Hyperbolic Reflective Wavesource: GEO M6 utilises NEXO’s patented Hyperbolic Reflective Wavesource (HRW) to control acoustic energy by creating a virtual wavesource ‘outside the box’, resulting in optimal wavesource coupling without destructive interference.
• Waveguide Flanges: System flexibility can be increased by adding flanges to the HF waveguide exit, changing the standard 80˚ acoustic coverage across the horizontal plane to 120˚.
• Directivity Phase Device: A Directivity Phase Device (DPD) on each cone driver extends the upper frequency limit for file source coupling between adjacent speakers. 6.5” drivers coherently couple as if there were twice as many 3.25” cones mounted at half the physical distance.
• Directivity Phase Device: A Directivity Phase Device (DPD) on each cone driver extends the upper frequency limit for file source coupling between adjacent speakers. 6.5” drivers coherently couple as if there were twice as many 3.25” cones mounted at half the physical distance.

• Port tube profiling: Internal faces of the port tube are profiled to ensure smooth air flow, reducing turbulence to increase low frequency efficiency and linearity at high power.

Tech Specifications:

Frequency Response: 80Hz – 19kHz ±3dB
Usable Range @-6dB: 75Hz – 20kHz
Sensitivity 1W @ 1m: 95dB SPL Nominal
Nominal Peak SPL @ 1m: 127dB
HF Dispersion: 80˚or 120˚Horizontal (CCD)
Crossover Frequencies: LF-HF: 2kHz Passive
Nominal Impedance:
Recommended Amplifiers: 450W per box (3 boxes max in parallel on one channel amplifier)
Height x Width x Depth: 191mm x 373mm x 260mm
Weight: Net 9.7kg

D&B Audiotechnik V12

Comprising both line array systems and point source solutions, the V-Series is the answer for medium to large scale sound reinforcement application. The 3-way passive loudspeakers the same dipolar driver arrangement, while the subwoofers all exhibit d&b cardioid technology. In short, the V-Series is a verifiable recipe for success. The 3-way passive V8 and V12 line array loudspeakers provide 80° and 120° horizontal dispersion respectively, maintained down to 250 Hz.

Main Features include:

• 3-way passive design housing 2 x 10” LF drivers
• One hornloaded 8” MF driver and two 1.4” exit HF compression drivers with 2.5” voice coils mounted to a dedicated waveshaping device.
• The symmetrical dipolar arrangement of the neodymium LF drivers around the centrally mounted coaxial MF and HF components allows a smooth overlap of the adjacent frequency bands in the crossover design.
• 120° horizontal constant directivity dispersion control nominally being maintained down to 250 Hz.
• Mechanical and acoustical design enables flown vertical arrays of up to twenty four loudspeakers. It can be used in columns of purely V12 loudspeakers or combined with V8s and / or with V-SUBs.
• The cabinet is constructed from marine plywood and has an impact and weather protected PCP (Polyurea Cabinet Protection) finish.

Tech Specifications:

Frequency response (–5 dB standard): 67 Hz - 18 kHz
Frequency response (–5 dB CUT mode): 100 Hz - 18 kHz
Max. sound pressure (1m, free field)
with D20/30D: 139 dB
with D80: 142 dB
Cabinets per amplifier channel: 2
Configuration: High performance 3-way passive line array loudspeaker
Nominal impedance: 8 Ω
Power handling capacity (RMS/peak 10 ms): 500/2000 W
Nominal dispersion angle (horizontal): 120° 13
Splay angle settings: 0° - 14° (1° increment)
Components: 2 x 10” driver / 1 x 8” driver; 2 x 1.4” exit compression driver; passive crossover network
Connections: 2 x NLT4 F/M; optional 2 x NL4 or 2 x EP5
Dimensions (H x W x D): 310 x 700 x 460 mm or (12.2 x 27.5 x 18”)
Weight: 34 kg (75 lb)


Of all the achievements JBL has made over the years, the VTX Series stands as a milestone in the practical application of creative engineering. The next generation in line arrays, VTX heralds a new era in performance, system integration and user friendliness.

JBL VTX A12 is a complete tour sound solution for mid- to large-size touring applications and high-end fixed installations. VTX A12 was designed from scratch to address the unique challenges of rental companies, FOH engineers and tour sound production crews. Next-generation JBL transducer technology and a high-frequency waveguide design deliver unmatched performance, sensitivity and coverage. A patented JBL rigging mechanism and redesigned suspension system streamline deployment and setup. And refinements to the physical design maximize reliability and versatility, while minimizing size and dramatically reducing weight. VTX A12 isn’t just a superior line array—it’s a completely new way to approach tour sound.

Main Features include:

• New and improved JBL transducers for the best output per weight.
• Innovative HF section integrates the phasing plug and waveguide for high sensitivity and linearity even at high output levels.
• Redesigned Radiation Boundary Integrator® (RBI) for reduced horn edge diffraction, improved LF sensitivity, lower distortion, and 90-degree coverage down to 250 Hz.
• Next Generation LF section, including industry-defining Differential Drive woofers, with a dual magnet, dual voice-coil design for extended linear excursion.
• Best-in-class rigging for streamlined, rapid deployment.
• Full-face grill for superior weatherization and refined aesthetics.
• New transport cart and frame for simplified transport and setup.
• Optimizations throughout the design for space efficiency and reduced weight while simultaneously improving performance.
• Full integration with JBL system control and prediction software.
• Lightweight design.

Tech Specifications:

Frequency Response: 46 Hz - 19 kHz (Preset: VTX A12)
Coverage Pattern: Horizontal: 90 degrees nominal (250Hz - 18kHz)
Vertical: Varies with array size and configuration
Max SPL: 146 dB (Preset: VTX A12)
System Processing: Crown Audio I-Tech HD Series, Crown Audio I-Tech 4x3500HD
IP Rating: IP55 EN (60529)
UV Rating: 6 (ISO105-B01)
Dimensions (H x W x D): 330.2mm x 1.118mm x 495.3mm or (13.0in x 44.0in x 19.5in)
Weight: 60.8 kg (134.0 lbs)


L-Acoustics’ K2 with Panflex Technology includes the K2 full-range element with Panflex horizontal steering, operating from 35 Hz to 20 kHz; the K1-SB LF element down to 30 Hz or LF throw down to 35 Hz; SB28 LF element, extending down to 25 Hz; and the LA4X LA8 amplified controllers. K2 employs Panflex combines mechanically adjustable fins with DSP algorithms effective from 300 Hz. Four settings are possible: two symmetric (70° or 110°) and two asymmetric (90° as 35°/55° or 55°/35°). The K2 system can match the complex shape of any audience geometry with ideal sonic performance and minimum noise pollution.

The K2 loudspeaker enclosure is based on a 3-way active design. It comprises 4 input sections: 2 LF and 1 MF at a nominal impedance of 8 ohms, and 1 HF at a nominal impedance of 16 ohms. It features two 12” speakers and four 6.5”, all direct-radiating neodymium speakers mounted in a bass-reflex enclosure, and two 3” neodymium diaphragm compression drivers coupled to individual DOSC waveguides and adjustable directivity fins. The transducers are implemented in a K-shape configuration. The K2 enclosure operates over the nominal frequency range of 35 Hz to 20 kHz. Its LF resources can be reinforced with the dedicated K1-SB extension and its bandwidth can be extended down to 25 Hz with the SB28 subwoofer. The K2 rigging system allows vertical assembly of enclosures with various inter-element angles (up to 10°), constituting a line array with variable curvature. The combination of the coplanar symmetry and the DOSC waveguide in the HF region ensure a perfect acoustic coupling between the elements of an array. The WST (Wavefront Sculpture Technology) criteria are fulfilled, so that such an array can be qualified as a true line source. The K2 is driven and quad-amplified by the LA8 or LA4X controller.

Main features include:

• K1 system design rescaled into a 12” compact and flexible format.
• V-DOSC SPL and bandwidth, with 10° inter-element flexibility.
• 100% acoustic and rigging compatibility with K1 and K1-SB.
• 70°/110° symmetric and 90° (L/R) asymmetric horizontal directivity.
• LA-RAK (LA8) advanced system drive and protection.
• Low-weight for rigging limitations and cost-effective logistics.

Tech Specifications:

Usable bandwidth: (-10dB) 35 Hz - 20 kHz
Maximum SPL: 147 dB ([K2_70] preset)
Coverage angle (-6 dB) Horizontal: 110°/70° symmetric ; 90° asymmetric (35°/55° or 55°/35°);
Vertical: depends on the number of elements and array curvature.
Transducers: LF - 2 x 12’’, weather-resistant, bass-reflex; MF - 4 x 6.5’’, weather-resistant, bass reflex; HF - 2 x 3’’, diaphragm compression driver, DOSC waveguide.
Nominal impedance: LF - 2 x 8 ohms; MF - 8 ohms; HF - 16 ohms.
RMS power handling: LF - 2 x 450 W; MF -320 W; HF - 160 W.
Connectors IN: 1 x 8-point PA-COM® ; LINK: 1 x 8-point PA-COM.
Rigging components: Captive 4-point rigging system; Inter-enclosure angles: 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 or 10°.
Dimensions: W/w x H x D 1338 x 354/286 x 400 mm (52.7 x 14/11.3 x 15.8 in)
Weight (net): 56 kg 123.2 lb.

Martin Audio MLA

Martin Audio’s revolutionary award-winning Multi-cellular Loudspeaker Array [MLA] technology has reinvented the way loudspeaker arrays are configured and controlled. With it has come an unsurpassed control of sound with pristine fidelity and huge output capability — bringing the FOH engineer and the audience together in a more powerful, involving experience.

Main features include:

• Smart Active Monitor (SAM) Systems
Directivity Control Waveguide (DCW) Technology
• Minimum Diffraction Enclosure (MDE) Technology
• Reflex Port Design
• Optimized Amplifiers
• Active Crossovers
• Protection Circuitry
• Intelligent Signal Sensing (ISS) Technology
• Iso-Pod Stand
• Versatile Mountings

Tech Specifications:

Type: Three-way cellular drive, active array element
Frequency Response (1): 52Hz-18kHz ± 3dB
Maximum SPL @ 1m:
LF: 133dB continuous, 139dB peak (3)
MF: 134dB continuous, 140dB peak (4)
HF: 139dB continuous, 145dB peak (4)
LF: 2 x12” (300mm)/3” (75mm) voice coil, ultra-long excursion, neodymium magnet drivers, Hybrid® bass horn loaded
MF: 2 x 6.5” (165mm)/2” (50mm) coil, neodymium magnet drivers, horn loaded
HF: 3 x 1” (25mm) exit neodymium magnet compression drivers, horn loaded
Dispersion: (-6dB) 90º horizontal (-10dB) 120º horizontal 7.5° vertical
Crossover Frequencies: 320Hz: 8th-order Linkwitz-Riley 4kHz: Vanishing Point™ FIR filters
Power Supply:
Type: Switch mode, fixed frequency with PFC
AC Input Operating Range: 100 – 240V ~ AC, 50 - 60Hz
AC Overvoltage Tolerance: 400V AC
Power Factor: > 0.95
Nominal Power Consumption: 900W
Mains Connector: 16A IEC309 (Ceeform) – IP44 rated
IP Rating: IP 24
Dimensions (inc. wheel-board): (W) 1136mm x (H) 372mm (376mm) x (D) 675mm (825mm)
(W) 44.7in x (H) 14.6in (14.8in) x (D) 26.5in (32.4in)
Weight: (ex. wheel-board): 87.5kg (193lbs)


The HDL 50-A Three-Way Line Array Module is a true active high power speaker system ready to use touring system for large events, indoors and outdoors. Equipped with 2x12” woofers, 4x symmetrical 6.5” midranges and two 2” drivers, it offers excellent playback quality and high sound pressure levels with a built in 2200W RMS powerful digital amplifier that delivers superior SPL, while reducing energy requirement.

Using advanced neodymium magnets and a groundbreaking new housing constructed from lightweight plywood and polypropylene, it has a remarkably low weight for easy handling and flying.

Main Features include:

• 4400 Watt, 3 way amplification
• 140 dB max SPL
• 8 x high power neodymium transducers
• 48 kHz, 32 bit DSP processing
• RDNet on board
• Remote monitoring and control
• Symmetrical design
• Extremely low weight

Tech Specifications:

Input signal: bal/unbal
Input connectors: XRL male, RDNET
Output connectors: XLR female, RDNET
Input sensitivity: +4 dBu
Frequency Response -3 dB: 40 Hz ÷ 20000 Hz
Max SPL: 140 dB
Horizontal coverage angle: 90°
Vertical coverage angle: 10°
Compression Driver: 2x1.4” neo, 3.0” v.c.
Midrange: 4x6” neo, 2.0” v.c.
Woofer: 2x12” neo, 3.0” v.c.
Crossover frequencies: 200-800 Hz
Protections: thermal, rms
Limiter: soft limiter
Controls: Cluster size, HF correction, RDNET
Height: 366/14.42 mm/inch
Width: 1171/46.1 mm/inch
Depth: 502/19.78 mm/inch
Net Weight:56/123.45 kg/lbs


The HX 7, is an update to TOA’s classic HX-5, with companion 18-inch sub. The HX-7 expands the HX Series with a larger, more powerful configuration. Designed to meet the needs of medium-sized venues, such as churches, auditoriums (and other performance spaces), as well as gymnasiums and sports arenas, it adds true line array performance to its already impressive range of configurations. Its improved hi-frequency driver compliment improves output, power handling, and provides enhanced intelligibility within the vocal range. Multiple HX-7’s may be stacked together vertically for increased power handling and distance coverage. Like its smaller sibling, the HX-5, the HX-7 offers flexibility not available with other “single-box” speaker products.

Models available: HX-7B, HX-7B-WP (weather proof), HX-7W, HX-7W-WP (weather proof).

Main Features include:

• 4 cell configuration each incorporating:
• --(2) 5” Low-frequency drivers
• --(1) Center-mounted, waveguide-loaded, 1”-exit compression driver
• Flexible vertical angle adjustment between 0° and 45° (60° with second HX-7 and optional adapter).
• Power handling: 750W Continuous Program @ 8 Ohms.
• 100dB sensitivity (1W @ 1m).
• Optional hardware for stand, wall, ceiling & flown installations.
• Black or White & weather-proof (WP) versions available

Tech Specifications:

Enclosure: Sealed type
Power Handling Capacity:Continuous pink noise: 250 W (IEC60268-5: 350 W); Continuous program: 750 W
Rated Impedance:8
Sensitivity: 100 dB (1 W, 1 m)
Frequency Response: 105 Hz - 20 kHz
Crossover Frequency: 1.7 kHz
Directivity Angle: Horizontal: 100°; Vertical: Depending on directivity angle mode
Speaker Component: Low frequency: 13 cm (5.5”) cone-type x 8;High frequency: Wave front control horn with compression driver x 4
Input Terminal: M4 screw terminal, distance between barriers:9 mm (0.35”)
Dimensions: 497 (W) x 664 (H) x 274 (D) mm (19.57” x 26.14” x 10.79”)
Weight: 30 kg (66.14 Ib)

Outline GTO C-12

The Outline GTO C-12 is a compact line-source enclosure that can be efficiently transported and deployed, but still produce the power, intelligibility and control necessary to handle a wide range of events and locations.

It is a descendent of the GTO, a system which, was launched in 2011. GTO C-12 develops the high transducer density concept pioneered by GTO by packing eight drive units into a remarkably compact cabinet, containing two 12” low frequency drivers, four 6.5” midrange units and two 3”-throat compression drivers, mounted on the same award-winning DPRWG waveguide found in its big brother.

GTO C-12 retains a key element from GTO in the V-shaped front baffle called the ‘V-Power Concept’. This ground-breaking idea facilitates superior acoustical coupling between high-frequency modules, thus producing a smooth yet extended HF response. It also creates the ideal ‘unbroken baffle’ shape through an array which minimises diffraction and deterioration, especially in the far field.

The C-12 cabinet is 21.6% smaller in the vertical plane than the GTO, while overall cabinet weight has been reduced by a remarkable 30%.

The footprint of the new cabinet is exactly the same as all the other modules in the GTO range, allowing full mechanical compatibility with GTO, GTO-SUB, GTO-LOW and GTO-DF in terms of rigging, flying hardware and wheelboards. GTO C-12 is also fully compatible with the Outline DBS and LAB21 subwoofers, and we can supply suitable DSP controller presets for any combination of GTO C-12 and Outline subwoofers.

GTO C-12 shares a common voicing with our other concert-series products, allowing them to be freely integrated to create system designs to handle any application..

Main Features include:

• Compact high-power full range line-source element to form part of the GTO turnkey solution.
• Light weight; 12 elements with 1 GTO DF from a single 1 ton chain motor.
• High efficiency full range element incorporating 2 x 12” LF drive-units, 4 x 6.5” MF drive-units and 2 x 3” diaphragm HF drivers on a D.P.R.W.G. waveguide, coupled to an Outline ‘V-Power’ baffle.
• Very high power handling (3200 LF + 2400 MF + 1000 HF watts AES peak) and sound pressure (147.5 dB SPL peak @ 1 metre – full space).
• Equipped with the high-precision, lightweight, integrated GTO rigging system to allow accurate aiming and coverage.
• Design file available within the ‘Open Array’ 3D acoustic simulation software.
• Ideal for theatre, arena, festival and stadium productions
Tech Specifications:
Frequency Response(-10 dB): 45 Hz – 18 kHz Average Dispersion: Horizontal: 90° Vertical: Depending on array configuration Impedance: Low: 2 x 8 Ω (min 2 x 6 Ω) Mid: 8 Ω (min 6.6 Ω) High: 16 Ω (min 16.6 Ω) Power – Waes: Low: 2 x 400 (2 x 1600 peak) Mid: 600 (2400 peak) High: 250 (1000 peak) Max Short-Term SPL @ 1 m, free-field*: 147.5 dB SPL Loudspeakers And Loading: Low: 2 x 12″ NdFeB Hybrid band-pass loaded woofers Mid: 4 x 6.5″ NdFeB partially horn loaded mid woofers High: 2 x 3″ diaphragm NdFeB compression driver loaded by 2 D.P.R.W.G. Weight – Single Unit: 72.5 kg (160 lb) Dimensions (Net): Height: 363 mm (14 9/32″); Width: 1126 mm (44 11/32″); Depth: 655 mm (25 25/32″) * calculated using +10 dB crest-factor signal

Bose ShowMatch SM10

Bose Professional ShowMatch DeltaQ SM10 full-range array modules provide 10° nominal vertical coverage with included field-changeable waveguides offering choice of 70° or 100° horizontal coverage. Replace single waveguide panel to form horizontal asymmetrical patterns. The 2-way module requires external power amplifiers (2- channels) and DSP to provide full-range response from 59 – 18,000 Hz with peak array output up to 145 dB.

Main Features include:

• DeltaQ technology – defines the next-generation in loudspeaker array design with selectable coverage patterns that more precisely direct sound to audience areas for improved sound quality and vocal clarity with fewer boxes versus line arrays.
• Replaceable waveguides – ships with 100° waveguides installed with 70° panels included to allow coverage change. Largest-in-class size provides better coverage and vocal clarity. Change single panel for asymmetrical patterns.
• Compact, portable enclosure – Versatile design allows both fixed install and portable applications, from small clubs and houses of worship to the largest performing arts centers and AV productions.
• Tour-sound output level – 4x Bose EMB2S compression drivers, improved with more HF output, and 2x 8-inch neodymium high-power woofers allow peak array output up to 145 dB SPL.
• 3-point “quick pin” rigging – Fast, easy setup with up to 24 full-range modules and 10:1 design factor.
• Removable side guards – provide rigging guard and hand holds for portable applications. Easily removed for permanent installs to reduce width and improve sight lines..
Tech Specifications:
Frequency Response: (+ / -3 dB) (1) 69 – 16,000 Hz
Frequency Range: (-10 dB) 59 – 18,000 Hz
Recommended High-Pass Protection Filter: 70 Hz with minimum 12-dB / octave filter
Nominal Coverage Pattern: 100° H x 10° V (includes waveguides for 70° H x 10° V)
Recommended Crossover: 750 Hz (acoustic; requires active, 2-way crossover in DSP)
Power Handling, long-term continuous:
Bose extended-lifecycle test: 450 W (Low Frequency) 100 W (High Frequency)
AES transducer test: 600 W (LF) 125 W (HF)
Power Handling, peak:
Bose extended-lifecycle test: 1800 W (LF) 400 W (HF)
AES transducer test: 2400 W (LF) 500 W (HF)
Sensitivity (SPL/ 1W @ 1 m) (2):
Bose extended-lifecycle test: 94 dB (LF) 106 dB (HF)
AES transducer test: 94 dB (LF) 106 dB (HF)
Calculated Maximum SPL @ 1 m (3):
Bose extended-lifecycle test: 121 dB (LF) 126 dB (HF)
AES transducer test: 122 dB (LF) 127 dB (HF)
Calculated Maximum SPL @ 1 m, peak :
Bose extended-lifecycle test: 127 dB (LF) 132 dB (HF)
AES transducer test: 128 dB (LF) 133 dB(HF)
Low Frequency: 2 x Bose SM8 neodymium 8-inch woofers (3-inch voice coil)
High Frequency: 4 x Bose EMB2S extended-HF neodymium compression driver (2-inch voice coil) Nominal Impedance: 8 ohms + 6 ohms (LF/HF)
Connectors: 2 x Neutrik® NL4 wired parallel Suspension /
Mounting: integrated 3-point quick-pin rigging
Dimensions: (H x W x D) 11.1” x31.2” x18.3” (282 x 793 x 465 mm) / W: 29.8” (757 mm) side guards removed
Net Weight: 65.5 lbs (29.7 kg)